Concord Chapel Animal Hospital

"Caring for Pets and Their People"

IF YOU ARE IN DOUBT ABOUT THESE HOME CARE INSTRUCTIONS, DON'T HESITATE TO CALL US 614-871-1111

Go Home Instructions | FYI

Your Vet Tech/Assistant will go over Go Home instructions before you leave our office that will apply specifically to your pet.

ABSCESSES

An abscess is often the result of puncture wounds, scratches, or bites. The small wound on the skin surface heals quickly, trapping bacteria below the skin surface. The resulting infection causes fever and painful swelling in the affected area(s). Abscesses may burst and drain, and many require surgical drainage.


The area of the abscess may drain; this is normal. Gently clean off the drainage with a clean moist towel or wash cloth.

 Drainage Tube: Some abscesses require a temporary drainage tube to keep them open and draining so that they do not fill with infectious material and recur. If your pet has a drain, you will need to clean the area around the drain several times a day, and the drain will need to be removed in 3-5 days. We can schedule an appointment for the drain removal and suture removal when your pet is released.

 Your pet’s activity level should be restricted until the abscess has healed, and sutures (if present) have been removed. Cats should not be allowed outside during this time.

 Leave the Elizabethan collar on your pet at ALL TIMES, unless he or she is directly supervised.

 Hot pack the area:


Please call us if you notice:

Swelling or redness in the affected area

The abscessed area does not heal.

ADULT CAT CARE INFORMATION

Preventive health care is essential in protecting your adult cat from many serious illnesses. Our staff is happy to answer any questions that you may have about your pet, including vaccinations, parasites, diet, behavior, etc.


VACCINATIONS: Proper immunizations are crucial in helping to prevent disease. Adult cats, even if housed exclusively indoors, should be vaccinated to protect them from potentially deadly diseases. Your cat’s lifestyle will determine the interval of vaccination and what vaccines he or she should receive.

● Feline Distemper/Upper Respiratory Vaccine or 4-In-One Vaccine is a combination vaccine that helps provide immunity for four different diseases.

● Feline Leukemia Vaccine helps protect your cat from contracting Feline Leukemia.

● Rabies Vaccine protects your cat from contracting Rabies. This vaccine is required by law in Franklin County for cats 16 weeks of age and older.


FELINE LEUKEMIA/FIV TESTING: Feline Leukemia and closely related FIV affect the immune system, decreasing its ability to fight off other diseases and cancers. Feline Leukemia/FIV is contagious to other cats through body fluid contact, or cats can be infected directly from the mother before, during, or after birth. Infected cats can look and act healthy, but still be infected with one or both of these serious viruses. Both of these diseases can significantly shorten the lifespan of affected cats. All new cats and kittens should be tested at their first appointment, and results are available in 20-30 minutes. If your cat has not been tested, we can test at any age.


INTESTINAL PARASITES: We will test your cat for intestinal worms at the annual vaccination visit every year. This is very important for both human and feline health!


DIET: We recommend feeding your cat a premium brand of cat food such as: Purina ProPlan, Hills Science Diet, Iams/Eukanuba, or Royal Canin. Changing the brand of food or adding table food to the diet can cause vomiting and/or diarrhea, so change foods gradually and refrain from feeding your pets from the table. Do not feed your cat cow’s milk-this can also cause diarrhea!


LITTER BOX TRAINING: Most adult cats will instinctively use a litter box with little training. If your cat has any change in litter box habits, let us know immediately-this can be an indication of serious illness, particularly in male cats. Male cats are more prone to urinary tract blockage, and should be monitored carefully for urination.


FLEA PREVENTION: Preventing a flea infestation is much easier than treating one! We recommend using a product or combination of products that kills both eggs and adult fleas.


HEARTWORM PREVENTION: Cats, just like dogs, can get heartworms from mosquitoes. Unlike dogs, there is no easy test to detect heartworms in cats, so prevention using a topical spot on or a chewable tablet is the best course of action.


DENTAL CARE: Preventive dental care for your cat can provide a life-long health benefit. Even if your cat will not accept tooth brushing, there are dental treats and rinses to help you keep your cat’s teeth and gums healthy.


SPAY/NEUTER: The health and behavior advantages of spaying or neutering your pet are numerous. We can perform this procedure beginning at four months of age.


DECLAWING: Declaw surgery can be performed at any age, beginning at 12 weeks, though younger cats experience a shorter recovery time. Declawed cats should ALWAYS be housed exclusively indoors for the rest of their lives.



ADULT DOG CARE INFORMATION

Preventive health care is essential in protecting your dog from many serious illnesses. Our staff is happy to answer any questions that you may have about your pet, including vaccinations, parasites, diet, behavior, etc.


VACCINATIONS: Proper immunizations are crucial in helping to prevent disease. Adult dogs need vaccinations, heartworm and intestinal worm checks annually.


1. Distemper/Parvovirus Vaccine or 7-In-One Vaccine is a combination vaccine that helps provide immunity for seven different diseases: Canine Distemper, Hepatitis, Leptospirosis, Parainfluenza, Parvovirus.

2. Bordetella Vaccine immunizes your dog against a contagious upper respiratory disease.

3. Rabies Vaccine protects your dog from contracting Rabies. This vaccine is required by law in Franklin County.


INTESTINAL PARASITES: We check dogs every year at the annual visit for intestinal parasites.


SPAY/NEUTER: The health and behavior advantages of spaying or neutering your pet are numerous. We can perform this procedure beginning at 4 months of age, but it can be performed at any age. If you intend to breed your dog, it is still important to spay or neuter once his or her reproductive years are past-this will help reduce the chances of illness in your dog as he or she ages.


HEARTWORM PREVENTION: Every dog needs to be heartworm tested every year, and kept on heartworm prevention year-round. There are several kinds of heartworm preventive available, and the veterinarian will recommend the kind that is best for your dog.


FLEA PREVENTION: Preventing a flea infestation is much easier than treating one! We recommend using a product or combination of products that kills both eggs and adult fleas. New, longer lasting and more effective products such as Advantage, Frontline, and Confortis are also available.


DIET: We recommend feeding a premium dog food from such brands as Purina Pro-Plan, Hill’s Science Diet, Eukanuba, Iams, Waltham, Blue Buffalo, or Royal Canin. Changing the brand of food or adding table food to the diet can cause vomiting and/or diarrhea, so change foods gradually and refrain from feeding your dog from the table.


HOUSE TRAINING AND BEHAVIOR: If your adult dog displays any changes in bathroom habits, let us know. These can be signs of illness in some cases, and if behavioral, are much more easily addressed before the habits become ingrained.


DENTAL CARE: Proper dental care for your dog will be a life-long health benefit. Always use toothpaste made especially for cats and dogs-human toothpaste can make them sick if swallowed! Try to brush your dog’s teeth at least five times weekly. If your dog’s teeth accumulate tartar buildup, the veterinarian may recommend a dental cleaning periodically.



ALLERGIES

Allergies in pets typically cause itchy skin where the pet chews, licks, and scratches at their skin. This can lead to hair loss and red skin. They can also get secondary yeast and bacterial infections which results in scabs, papules, and crusts. There are four main types of allergy that we see in pets:

Atopy is caused primarily by allergens such as pollens, dust, or dust mites. Many dogs with atopy are genetically predisposed to the condition, and certain breeds are more commonly affected than other breeds. Atopy usually first occurs at 1 to 3 years of age. The symptoms usually start out seasonally but can become non seasonal over time.

Food allergy is caused primarily by the proteins and sometimes fillers and artificial colors found in most pet foods. Food allergies are not usually associated with a food change but are most commonly found after the pet has been eating the same food over a long period of time. These allergies are not seasonal.

Flea allergy dermatitis is caused by the saliva of the flea. You may or may not sea fleas on your pet as they can lick or chew off the offending parasites before you notice them.

Contact allergies are caused by a response to allergens in things like carpet cleaners and fabrics.


Diagnosis:

Atopy diagnosed using skin testing or blood testing. This will allow a vaccine to be created against the allergens your dog is allergic to. Your pet must be taken off certain medications before these tests can be performed.

Food trials are the only way to diagnose a food allergy. Your pet must eat a special food that is either cooked by you or prescribed by your veterinarian.

Flea allergy dermatitis is diagnosed also with skin or blood testing but can also be diagnosed by finding fleas on your pet, seeing a specific pattern of hair loss, and treatment with flea prevention leading to the resolution of the skin symptoms.

Contact allergy is difficult to diagnose but elimination of the offending substance and subsequent resolution of the skin symptoms is diagnostic for this type of allergy.


Treatments: (not all treatments will be used for every allergy or allergic pet)


Antihistamines: This medication is usually used in conjunction with other treatments. Your pet can take antihistamines for life. Several types may be tried to find the one best for your pet. Topical antihistamines for the eyes can be helpful in patients with eye allergy (itchy conjunctivitis). Visine A® is one over-the-counter product that can be helpful. 

Avoidance of the allergens: This can be helpful for house dust mite allergies and contact allergies. Pollen exposure can be reduced by using air-conditioning and air filters, avoiding the outside early morning and late afternoon, wiping down with moist cloths after going outside and frequent bathing. 

Oral Steroids (prednisone, prednisone): These drugs have many potential side effects and are reserved for adult animals, those with short seasonal problems or where other therapy is not possible or is ineffective. Typically, treatment is started at one dose and then tapered off to every other day usage. 

Topical Steroids: Topical usage is safer than oral usage. It can be very helpful if itching is localized (e.g., eyes, ears). It can be used for more widespread disease in the form of leave-on rinses or lotions (ResiCORT®) or a triamcinolone spray (Genesis®). 

Cyclosporine (Neoral®/Atopica®): This immunosuppressive agent can be used at low doses to treat allergy successfully in about 60% of patients. It can also be used to lower needed dosages of steroids. The major short-term side effect is gastrointestinal upset. The long-term safety is not completely known. The dosage can often be lowered after a few weeks of successful treatment. 

Tacrolimus (Protopic® ointment): This drug is related to cyclosporine. It can be very useful for treating localized itchy areas in atopic dermatitis.  

Fatty acid supplements: Certain types of oils can reduce allergic symptoms in some patients. We can give fish oil capsules in conjunction with a low-fat diet or prescribe special prescription diets with the fish oil content raised. This therapy can help improve response to antihistamine therapy. 

Allergen Specific Immunotherapy: This involves giving an allergy vaccine injection that is made up specifically for your pet, usually for the lifetime of the animal. After an initial series of injections, periodic boosters will be needed (every 1-3 weeks). 60% to 80% of animals will improve with the vaccine. Results may not be seen for 3 to 6 months. When results are not seen in 9 to 12 months, a re-evaluation is necessary. 

Bathing: Atopic skin is sensitive and subject to drying. Only specially designed hypoallergenic shampoos should be used on your allergic dog. Rinsing should be thorough. Generally it is best to follow with a hypoallergenic cream rinse or spray to remoisturize the skin after every bath.

Flea prevention: The use of spot on flea preventatives such as Frontline or Revolution can prevent flea allergy symptoms.

Food trials: They will eat this food for at least a 12 week period. During this time they can not eat any other foods or treats and recommendations concerning heartworm and flea prevention will be made.

Medications/Treatments:


Recommendations:

1. Please call the hospital if

●your pet’s symptoms persist even with treatment

●your pet has drowsiness or excitability

●your pet will not eat, has diarrhea, or vomiting

2. Schedule a medical progress exam for your pet in

3. Go to veterinarypartner.com and look under Itching and Allergy in Cats, Canine Atopic Dermatitis, and Food Allergy for more information.

4. Please call with any questions or concerns.




ANAL GLANDS

The anal glands or sacs are located just beneath the skin just inside your pet’s anus. They open to the outside by tiny passageways or ducts. Glands within the anal sacs produce a dark, foul-smelling substance. In the wild, anal glands are used for scent marking. The glands normally empty as the animal has a bowel movement, so some dogs never need to have their anal glands expressed. Many dogs need to have their anal glands emptied manually—the frequency that your dog will need to have his/her anal glands emptied varies widely, from every 2-3 weeks to every few months.


The anal glands can become infected and swollen, and the material inside the gland may become so thick that they are impossible to express. Occasionally, if the glands cannot express naturally, and if they are not emptied manually, they can form small but painful abscesses near the rectum.


Signs of anal gland disease include:

●Scooting (dragging the anus on the floor)

●Excessive licking near the anus

●Bloody drainage from the anal area


Treatment for anal sac disease may include the following:

●Manual expression of the gland contents

●Flushing the sacs and instilling antibiotics into them

●Surgical drainage or removal of the glands


Recommendations:


Please notify us if:

●Your pet’s condition does not seem to be healing properly

●You are unable to give medication as directed

●Your pet licks his rectal area excessively

●You have any questions about your pet’s condition or medications

●You notice foul-smelling drainage or sores near your pet's anus

●Feces clings to hair around the rectum because of hair mats or thick hair coat

2. Please go to HYPERLINK "http://www.veterinarypartner.com" www.veterinarypartner.com and type in Anal Sacs for more information.



ARTHRITIS

Arthritis is inflammation of a joint caused by degeneration from aging, heredity, infection, injury, allergic or immune system disease, and cancer. It can occur in any joint, even those in the spine. Signs of arthritis include pain when moving the affected joints and sometimes swelling of the affected joints. Arthritis can also cause fever and redness of the skin over the joint.


Radiographs (x-rays) and sometimes other laboratory tests are necessary to determine if your pet has arthritis, and if so, what medications will work best. Medical progress exams are frequently necessary to evaluate the response to treatment. Newer treatment and medication options can make arthritic animals more comfortable and increase quality of life, and even life span.


Treatment of Arthritis is typically multi-modal meaning several approaches combined lead to better results.

Weight Management: Obesity overloads already painful joints. Having your pet at a lean body weight is critical to reducing arthritis pain.


Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: These drugs target prostaglandins that cause pain and inflammation. Rimadyl, Metacam, Deramaxx, Zubrin and Previcox are commonly prescribed veterinary arthritis pain medications. Dogs do not tolerate human aspirin well, it tends to cause stomach upset and possible ulcers. DO NOT give acetaminophen (Tylenol), Ibuprofen (Motrin), or any other human pain medication to your pet. They can be highly toxic to dogs and cats and relatively small doses can result in kidney failure and death.


Glucosamine/Chondroitin Sulfate Supplements: These nutraceuticals provide building blocks to repair damaged cartilage. There are numerous oral tablets and foods containing these supplements. It takes a month or two to see the effects of these supplements.


Omega-3 Fatty Acids: These fats have anti-inflammatory properties and are used for both skin problems and joint problems. It takes a month or two to see the effects of these supplements.


MSM (methyl sulfonyl methane): This is a nutritional building block that can be used for cartilage repair and has anti-inflammatory properties.


Anti-oxidants and Free Radical Scavengers: These vitamins and nutraceuticals inactivate free radicals and may be able to delay age related changes to joints, skin, liver, etc. They include Vitamin C, Vitamin E, SAMe, etc.


Other Pain Medications: Some animals may need more than just and NSAID to control their pain. There are drugs such as Tramadol that can provide pain relief but do not inhibit inflammation.


Adequan Injections: This is an injectable cartilage component that can inhibit destruction of joint cartilage, stimulate cartilage repair, and increase joint lubrication.


Steroids: These drugs reduce inflammation and can be used for arthritis, skin problems, immune-mediated diseases etc. but they do have more negative side effects than the other medications mentioned above. They can cause immune suppression, increased thirst, increased urination, muscle weakness, decreased wound healing, thinning of the hair coat and skin, and may cause the development of diabetes mellitus.


Recommendations:

● Please Call the Hospital if your pet seems uncomfortable, or continues to exhibit lameness, your pet has vomiting or diarrhea or there is swelling or drainage from a joint.


● Exercise instructions:

● Dietary instructions:

● Please go to HYPERLINK "http://www.veterinarypartner.com" www.veterinarypartner.com and type in Arthritis: Medications for Degenerative Arthritis for more information.



AURAL HEMATOMA

An aural hematoma is a pocket of blood trapped between the cartilage and skin of the ear flap. Vigorous head shaking can cause trauma to the ear that result in aural hematomas, as can scratching or rubbing the ear. The most common causes of head shaking are ear infections and ear mites.


Treatment:

Aural hematomas can be treated surgically or non-surgically; while recurrence is possible with either treatment option, it is far more common with non-surgical treatment, and many cases eventually recur and require surgical treatment anyway. Treatment of the underlying cause of the head-shaking is vital in ensuring that the hematoma does not recur.

If left alone, an ear hematoma will resolve by itself. The fluid will be re-absorbed back into the body and the earflap will no longer bulge. The problem is that a lot of scarring is associated with this process and the ear is often not cosmetically appealing afterwards (it becomes a cauliflower ear). Resolution of a large hematoma can take several months during which it may be uncomfortable for the pet. The scaring may also make it difficult to treat future ear infections or even make it more likely for your pet to get an ear infection. If the patient is a poor anesthetic risk, it is certainly reasonable to forgo surgery.


Recommendations:

Please call the hospital if:

●Your pet’s ear swells

●If the ear has excessive drainage

●If you have difficulty administering medications

●If the bandage slips or falls off


Go to veterinarypartner.com and look under Aural Hematoma for more information.



HOME CARE OF SPLINTS, CASTS, AND BANDAGES

Splints, casts, and bandages are designed to protect and immobilize injured body parts and to ensure that they heal in a normal position. Pets cannot understand the purpose of a cast or bandage, and often bite or chew in an effort to remove the bandage. It is vital to make sure that your pet cannot remove the cast or bandage-most animals require an Elizabethan collar to prevent them from attempting to remove their bandage.


Recommendations:

● Failure to appropriately restrict activity level can slow healing, increase pain, and cause many complications in your pet’s recovery. Your pet’s activity level should be restricted to leash walking only for

● Call the hospital immediately if your pet damages the cast, if it slips from its original position, gets damp or wet, or smells bad.


 It is vital to protect the cast or bandage from the weather if your pet goes outside. Place a bag (like a bread bag or newspaper bag) over the cast ONLY while your pet is outdoors, and remove immediately after s/he returns inside. Never leave the cast or bandage enclosed in a bag for longer than a few minutes!

 Check your pet’s toes daily to make sure that they are pink, warm, and normal in size-not swollen, discolored, or otherwise abnormal.

 We need to recheck your pet’s cast/bandage in

Your pet will need to repeat radiographs (X-rays) in

You can remove the bandage at home in


NORMAL BIRTH IN CATS

Prior to Labor and Delivery

All of the preparations for the birth and care of kittens should be made before the litter is actually born. A box should be prepared with newspapers, towels, or blankets so that the mother becomes accustomed to sleeping in it and will deliver the kittens there. Place the box in a secluded yet familiar area of the home, away from family traffic, to allow mother and kittens’ solitude and rest. Fresh food and water should be available close by for the mother cat. Female cats should eat a high quality dry kitten food while pregnant and nursing.


Well before your cat is due to give birth, please gather the following supplies:

●Newspapers or old towels for bedding

●Towels to clean kittens and mother

●Heavy thread-to tie off umbilical cord, if needed – unflavored/scented dental floss works well

●Small sharp scissors, to cut umbilical cord, if needed

●Kitten milk replacement and pet nursing bottle

●Betadine Solution: antiseptic for the umbilical cords. DO NOT use alcohol or tincture of iodine

●Infant size bulb syringe to clear nose/mouth of kittens, if necessary

Labor and Delivery


First Stage: The queen may seem uneasy and restless. Pacing and “nesting” behavior is common-she may dig and scratch in her bedding as if it were a litter box. She may refuse food or water. Increased vocalization is common as well. This stage lasts 12 to 24 hours.

Second Stage: Uterine contractions and birth of the kittens begins. Delivery starts with a fluid-filled greenish sac that encloses the kitten, and the attached placenta. After the delivery, the mother normally opens the sac by licking and biting, cleans off the kitten, and severs the umbilical cord. You may have to assist with or perform these functions for the mother if she refuses to do it herself. Make sure the sac is removed from the kitten immediately if the mother doesn’t do so. If the mother is not attending to the kittens, clean the amniotic fluid from the nose and mouth of the kitten (CAREFULLY use a bulb syringe if necessary). You may need to cut the umbilical cord if the mother cat does not help with caring for the kittens-tie stout thread tightly around the cord, and cut the cord on the placenta side of the knot (the side AWAY from the kitten). Leave at least 1” of cord attached. Rub the kitten gently but firmly between warmed towels, and they should start squirming and vocalizing within a minute or so. After the kitten is breathing and moving actively, place the kitten by the queen so that it can nurse. Monitor kittens closely to make sure that they are all eating and behaving normally.

Third Stage: This is a resting stage, which follows delivery of each kitten. This stage may last from a few minutes to 1 hour. Occasionally, two kittens are delivered within a few minutes, followed by resting.


The queen and litter should be kept in a warm, secluded environment. Kittens cannot maintain their own body heat for the first two to three weeks of life, and it is vital to their survival. If the mother and kittens are handled too frequently, or in an area of the house with too much activity, the mother may move the litter to somewhere less appropriate, like a drawer or closet, where kittens can stray away from the mother and become chilled or injured.


Emergencies: Concord Chapel Animal Hospital (871-1111), OSU (292-3551), MedVet (864-5800)


● A kitten is lodged in the birth canal and cannot be removed gently. DO NOT TUG!

● Labor is strong and persistent for 30 minutes without delivery of a kitten.

● Labor is weak and intermittent for 5 hours without any results.

* There is a dark vaginal discharge, and no labor or births have occurred within 3 to 4 hours.




NORMAL BIRTH IN DOGS (Whelping)

Preparations for Birth

Begin preparations for delivery of puppies well before you expect your female to whelp. A whelping box should be provided for the mother to begin sleeping in to ensure birth of puppies in the area you have chosen. This box should be only slightly bigger than the mother, with sides 6 to 8 inches high to keep the pups from crawling out of the nest. It should be easy to clean, since it will need frequent cleaning during and after the birth. Place the box in a secluded yet familiar area of the home, away from the family traffic, to allow the mother solitude.


At around day 45 of your dog’s pregnancy, you should have your dog x-rayed to see how many pups she will deliver.


Gather these supplies well before your female is due to give birth

●Old towels

●Small pair of sharp scissors

●Spool of stout thread

●Several rolls of paper towels

●Infant size bulb syringe

●Heating pad in case you need to care for puppies away from the mother

●Cotton balls

●Puppy bottles, nipples, and formula

●The name and number of your veterinarian, as well as an emergency veterinary service


Females and litters should never be housed outdoors, even in garages or dog houses. Your dog and her litter will need careful observation, and this is impossible when a dog is housed outdoors. Also, puppies cannot regulate their body temperature until they’re over two weeks, of age, so even slightly cold or hot weather can be fatal.


If you want to know precisely when delivery is near, check the rectal temperature of the mother twice daily from the 58th day of pregnancy until labor begins. Normal rectal temperature is between 100.5 and 102.5 degrees F. Within 24 hours before the onset of labor, the rectal temperature drops nearly 2 degrees.


Labor and Birth


Stage One: The mother seems restless and nervous and often seeks seclusion. She may refuse food even if offered her favorite treats. This stage may last 6 to 24 hours. This is a good time to exercise the mother to allow her to urinate and defecate.


Second Stage: Uterine contractions and expulsion of the puppies begin. Usually a small greenish sac of fluid protrudes from the vulva, followed by the puppy and its attached placenta. The normal presentation of the puppy is nose first, stomach down. About one third of all puppies, however, are born hindquarters first. This presentation is considered normal in the dog. After delivery, the mother opens the sac, cleans off the pup, and severs the umbilical cord. Make sure the sac is removed from the puppy immediately if it is unbroken during delivery.


Third Stage: This is a resting stage, which follows delivery of each puppy. Mild contractions and delivery of the afterbirth occur in this phase. This stage usually lasts 10 to 30 minutes, but it may range from a few seconds to an hour. If your female dog has gone longer than four hours between puppies, and is “pushing” or having contractions, this is a danger sign and you should contact a veterinarian IMMEDIATELY.


Obstetric Care

Not all dogs will care for their puppies, and a female with a previously excellent disposition may snap or bite at humans who attempt to handle her litter--this is not uncommon, and is an instinctual response to protect her litter. If the mother is inexperienced or very young, she may need human assistance to care for her puppies. After a pup is delivered, remove all membranes covering the puppy, clean the face, and remove mucus from the mouth and nose. Rub the puppy with a clean towel to dry it and to stimulate respiration and circulation. You may need to clean mucus from the puppy’s nose and mouth by GENTLY removing it with an infant-size bulb syringe. After a few minutes of rubbing, the puppy should begin to squirm and cry loudly. The umbilical cord should be tied about an inch from the puppy’s body with fine thread and then cut on the side of the knot away from the puppy.


Post-Whelp Examination

One to Five days after a normal whelping, your female and litter should be examined by a veterinarian. This examination is vital to the health of the mother and puppies, because the doctor needs to check the bitch for retained placentas or puppies, infection, or other abnormalities. The puppies will be examined for birth defects such as heart murmurs, cleft palate, etc., and the veterinarian will dispense deworming medication for mother and litter. The female should be kept on a premium quality puppy food (Purina Pro Plan, Science Diet) while pregnant and nursing, until the puppies are weaned.

Emergencies: Concord Chapel (871-1111), OSU (292-3551), MedVet (864-5800)

●A puppy is stuck in the birth canal and cannot be gently removed. DO NOT TUG!

●There is strong, persistent labor for 30 minutes without delivery of a pup.

●There is weak, intermittent labor for 6 hours without delivery of any puppies.

● It has been more than 4 hours since the delivery of the last pup, and it is probable that

more puppies are still inside.

●There is a greenish-black vaginal discharge and no labor or puppies within 3 to 4 hours. The greenish-black color is normal, but the discharge should be followed very soon by delivery of the pups.

●The female is dripping blood and it will not stop.

●The pregnancy lasts more than 65 days.

●The female’s nipples become very red, hard, painful, and swollen



CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE

Congestive heart failure is when the heart fails to pump adequate blood to meet the needs of the body. CHF can result from valve disease, heartworm infection, or heart defects present at birth.


Pets with congestive heart failure fatigue easily, are short of breath, and cough because of fluid accumulation in the lungs. They may actually lose weight, but the abdomen becomes enlarged due to fluid accumulation. Some patients faint or collapse after excitement or exertion (exercise intolerance), and the tongue may appear bluish-grey.


Congestive heart failure cannot be cured, but many patients can live a comfortable life with proper medical management.


Radiographs (X-Rays), electrocardiograms (ECG’s), echocardiograms, blood pressure and other lab tests are used to diagnose the condition and monitor the response to treatment. Treatment is aimed at removing accumulated fluids, improving the heart’s pumping efficiency, and decreasing the heart’s workload.


Recommendations:

Diet: A low-sodium diet is essential in controlling congestive heart failure. Feed your pet as follows:


You should restrict your pet’s activity but some exercise is good for the pet's well-being and life quality. Avoid exercise that leads to excessive panting or weakness.


A patient with heart failure distress will have an increased respiratory rate. A pet with controlled heart failure may have a respiratory rate that is greater than normal. It is helpful to know what is normal for your pet and check several times daily. Simply watch the number of chest excursions during a 15-second period. A change in respiratory rate is a good sign the pet needs a medical progress exam. (With cats, be sure the cat is not purring when respiratory rate is checked. Do not count panting for dogs.)


Schedule a medical progress exam in


Please call our office if you notice:

● Coughing or hacking

● Difficulty breathing

● The tongue or gums look bluish - grey

● Vomiting and/or diarrhea

● Swelling in the abdomen

●Fainting or has seizures


You can go to HYPERLINK "http://www.veterinarypartner.com" www.veterinarypartner.com and type in Heart Failure Therapy for more information.



COCCIDIA

Coccidia (Isospora) are protozoan intestinal parasites that usually affect kittens and puppies, or adult animals that are stressed or immune compromised. Coccidia are spread from one animal to another via fecal contamination. This parasite does not affect humans.


Symptoms of coccidiosis include diarrhea (sometimes bloody), vomiting, and occasionally lethargy or dehydration if the vomiting and diarrhea are severe. Not all animals with coccidia show signs of illness.


Recommendations:

1. Clean all bedding, housing, and food pans. Pick up stool or scoop litter box immediately after elimination for 21 days.

2. Keep your pet away from other animals for 2-3 weeks.

3. Medication should be given as directed.

4. To make sure that your pet is free of parasites, please drop off a stool sample in 21 days.

5. Please call the hospital if:

●Your dog or cat has diarrhea that persists after the medication is finished.

●Your dog or cat exhibits vomiting that lasts longer than one day



CORNEAL ULCERS AND EROSIONS 

The cornea is the clear covering of the front of the eye. It is less than one millimeter thick, though consisting of several layers. It is extremely sensitive and easily susceptible to irritation and damage.


Corneal ulcers are erosions of the outer clear layer of the eye. They cause pain and irritation leading to the tissues around the eye becoming red and swollen. You may also see discharge (usually green or yellow in color) from the affected eye. You may also see cloudiness of the cornea or an opaque blue-white appearance to the cornea which occurs when the cornea itself swells with fluid.


Causes of corneal ulcers or erosions:

Rough contact with plants

Scratches from other animals

Self trauma

Chemical irritants

Foreign objects in the eye


Corneal ulcers are diagnosed using fluorescein stain which “highlights” the ulcer when viewed under a black light.


Corneal ulcers are typically treated with antibiotics, pain medication, and atropine.


Recommendations:

Corneal (fluorescein) stain may cause brilliant green or yellow discharge from your pet’s eye(s) or nose. This is normal and should resolve in several hours. You can wipe away discharge with a tissue or soft cloth, but do not touch the eye itself.


Medicate the eye as directed; your pet may be on more than one medication, so please read labels carefully for frequency and duration of application.

Schedule a medical progress exam in one week so we can reevaluate your pet’s eye. This is very important as some ulcers due not heal as quickly as others and other treatments may be necessary resolve the ulcer.

Your pet may need to wear an e-collar to keep them from further damaging their eye. Please keep the collar on at least until we reevaluate your pet’s eye.


Please call the hospital if:


You cannot apply the medication as directed.

Your pet shows signs of continued discomfort

The appearance of the eye changes in any way except returning to normal--size, color, etc.


Go to HYPERLINK "http://www.veterinarypartner.com" www.veterinarypartner.com and type in corneal ulcers and erosions for more information.




CLOSTRIDIUM Diarrhea Caused by Bacterial Overgrowth

Clostridium perfringens is a member of a family of bacteria that form protective spores and produce toxins.  In the case of Clostridium perfringens, the toxin the bacteria produce causes mucusy, sometimes bloody, or watery diarrhea.  Pets can contract Clostridium perfringens by eating it whether in food or something they ate in their environment. Alternatively, the organism may have been happily living in the intestine for long periods of time causing no problems what so ever when something causes it to form spores and produce toxin. The trigger may be dietary, stress, infection with another organism, or even administration of a medication. 

Clostridium is diagnosed by looking at feces under the microscope and identifying spore forming bacteria.  It can also be cultured in the lab where a microbiologist will also look for the offending toxin produced by the spore

Campylobacter:

Campylobacter species are a group of bacteria capable of causing diarrhea in dogs, cats, humans, and other animals.  Campylobacter species also produce toxins resulting in diarrhea which is mucusy, sometimes bloody, and occasionally watery.  Most animals contract Campylobacter by eating it.  Younger animals are more likely to be affected by the bacteria due to their immature immune systems.  Adult animals can carry Campylobacter in their intestines where it may cause no problems at all.  

Campylobacter is diagnosed by identifying small seagull shaped bacteria while looking at feces under the microscope.  However, there are so many bacteria in feces that sometimes it can be hard to identify these bacteria.  In these cases, the feces must be cultured in a laboratory in order to identify this organism.


Zoonosis:

Both Clostridium perfringens and Campylobacter can infect humans.  It is important to wash your hands after cleaning up after your pet.  It is also important to disinfect the surfaces that your pet may have gotten feces on.  (This is one reason you do not want your cat walking around on your counter tops!)

Treatment:

Both Clostridium perfringens and Campylobacter are treated with antibiotics.  There may also be other treatments needed in order to resolve the diarrhea.


Recommendations:

  • Please call if the diarrhea does not resolve with the current treatment.
  • Feed your pet a bland diet such as Purina EN, Science diet I/d, boiled chicken/beef and rice, or chicken or beef baby food for the next 3-5 days, then gradually switch back to your pets regular diet over another 3-5 day period.
  • Please visit www.veterinarypartner.com and type in clostridium or campylobacter for more information.
  • Please call with any questions or concerns.




CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RUPTURE 

A ligament is a band of tough, fibrous tissue connecting two bones. In the knee, rupture of the cruciate ligament allows the femur (thigh bone) to slide back and forth over the tibia (shinbone).


The rupture first causes pain, limping, and holding the foot off the ground. In time the abnormal wear and tear of the joint leads to arthritis as the joint tries to stabilize itself. Cruciate ligament tears and ruptures occur more frequently in overweight, middle-aged to old dogs. However, they are not uncommon in young, athletic dogs as a result of trauma.


In some cases the ligament is only partially ruptured and may heal with rest. In other cases the ligament is completely ruptured and surgery is required to “fix” the ruptured ligament.


Recommendations:

1. If your pet goes outdoors, leash walk even if the yard is fenced. Discourage running, jumping, and rough play. Restrict your pet’s activity.

2. We recommend that your pet go on a weight loss program.

Feed Purina OM or Science Diet R/d

Give a measured amount of food at each feeding

Use only Lean Treats broken into quarters, baby carrots, beans, or frozen peas as treats

3. Schedule a medical progress exam in 2 weeks if your pet is still limping and or not improving.

4. Go to HYPERLINK "http://www.veterinarypartner.com" www.veterinarypartner.com and type in ruptured anterior cruciate ligament for more information.




DIABETES MELLITUS

The pancreas is an organ that sits near the stomach and produces proteins that helps digest food.  It also produces a protein called insulin which travels through the blood stream and helps sugar (glucose) get into the body’s cells so the cells can use the sugar as fuel.  In a diabetic patient the pancreas is not producing enough insulin.  This causes the blood sugar to rise which in turn increases the sugar in urine which will cause symptoms such as increased thirst and urination.  As long as diabetic patients are not feeling sick they will typical want to eat more, drink more, and urinate more.


How is diabetes treated?

Diabetes is usually treated with insulin injections.  Insulin injections are given under the skin every 12 hours.  The injections are measured in International Units (IU) and there are special insulin syringes that are used to give these injections. 


Where do I purchase insulin and insulin syringes?

Depending on the type of insulin your veterinarian recommends for your pet, it can be purchased through your veterinarian and sometimes at a human pharmacy.  Insulin syringes can also be purchased through your veterinarian or a human pharmacy depending on the size of syringe you need and the type of insulin your pet is receiving.  You do not need a prescription to purchase insulin or insulin syringes at a human pharmacy.


How do I give insulin injections?

  • Store the insulin in your refrigerator.
  • Before drawing up the insulin into a syringe, the vial of insulin should be rolled gently between your hands in order to mix the insulin properly.  (DO NOT SHAKE – this will damage the insulin and make the medication less affective.)
  • Place the needle into the rubber top of the bottle and draw up the required international units of insulin.  These units should be clearly marked on the side of the syringe.
  • Try not to get air in the syringe when you are drawing up the insulin as this will affect the amount of actual insulin you are giving, however, it will not harm your pet if a little air gets injected under their skin.
  • Pull up the skin and make a “tent”, angle the needle parallel to the pet’s body, and insert the needle at the bottom of the “tent”.
  • Pull back on the plunger to make sure you have negative pressure and are in the skin and not just the hair of your pet.
  • Inject the insulin under the skin by depressing the plunger.
  • Discard the syringe in an appropriate container and do not reuse syringes as it will make the injections more painful for your pet.


What tests will my pet need while on insulin?

Any pet that is a diabetic will periodically need tests done to make sure their diabetes is regulated.  When we say that a pet’s diabetes is regulated, that means that the blood sugar does not have dangerous swings and that the medication is working properly.  Tests veterinarians may use to achieve and maintain a regulated diabetic include: CBC, profile (superchem), glucose curves, fructosamine levels, and urinalysis.  Diabetic pets will have tests performed periodically throughout their lives to monitor their diabetes.


What are some symptoms of diabetes and insulin administration?

The following symptoms are considered emergencies and signs of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).  

  • Fainting or unconsciousness (coma)
  • Difficulty walking or stumbling
  • Disorientation
  • Restlessness, unusual movements, or unusual behavior
  • Seizures, trembling, or shivering

What to do if you see signs of hypoglycemia

  • Provide food immediately.
  • If your pet refuses to eat, administer Karo/corn syrup immediately.
  • If your pet will not swallow, rub the Karo/corn syrup on their gums.
  • As soon as signs of recovery are shown, have your pet eat a small amount of food.
  • Call your veterinarian immediately and advise them of time of last insulin injection and feeding.

The following symptoms are cause for concern and you should make an appointment in a day or two with your veterinarian.

  • Lethargy
  • Change in appearance of the eyes or apparent blindness
  • Drinking or urinating more than usual, or having accidents in the house
  • Vomiting more than once a day, or for more than one consecutive day
  • Injuries – Diabetic pet’s may have trouble healing and are prone to infections


Things you should be monitoring at home:

Daily follow-up

  • Evaluate water consumption once or twice a day
  • Evaluate urine production by recording the number of times the pet urinates
  • Monitor weight once a week

Make sure you and your family members are being consistent

  • Exercise: type, amount, and schedule
  • Feeding : what food, amount,  and schedule
  • Insulin injections: schedule and rotating injection sites
  • Insulin storage: in the refrigerator (DO NOT FREEZE)




DEMODEX (DOG) 

Preventive health care is essential in protecting your dog from many serious illnesses. Our staff is happy to answer any questions that you may have about your pet, including vaccinations, parasites, diet, behavior, etc.


VACCINATIONS: Proper immunizations are crucial in helping to prevent disease. Adult dogs need vaccinations, heartworm and intestinal worm checks annually.


1. Distemper/Parvovirus Vaccine or 7-In-One Vaccine is a combination vaccine that helps provide immunity for seven different diseases: Canine Distemper, Hepatitis, Leptospirosis, Parainfluenza, Parvovirus.

2. Bordetella Vaccine immunizes your dog against a contagious upper respiratory disease.

3. Rabies Vaccine protects your dog from contracting Rabies. This vaccine is required by law in Franklin County.


INTESTINAL PARASITES: We check dogs every year at the annual visit for intestinal parasites.


SPAY/NEUTER: The health and behavior advantages of spaying or neutering your pet are numerous. We can perform this procedure beginning at 4 months of age, but it can be performed at any age. If you intend to breed your dog, it is still important to spay or neuter once his or her reproductive years are past-this will help reduce the chances of illness in your dog as he or she ages.


HEARTWORM PREVENTION: Every dog needs to be heartworm tested every year, and kept on heartworm prevention year-round. There are several kinds of heartworm preventive available, and the veterinarian will recommend the kind that is best for your dog.


FLEA PREVENTION: Preventing a flea infestation is much easier than treating one! We recommend using a product or combination of products that kills both eggs and adult fleas. New, longer lasting and more effective products such as Advantage, Frontline, and Confortis are also available.


DIET: We recommend feeding a premium dog food from such brands as Purina Pro-Plan, Hill’s Science Diet, Eukanuba, Iams, Waltham, Blue Buffalo, or Royal Canin. Changing the brand of food or adding table food to the diet can cause vomiting and/or diarrhea, so change foods gradually and refrain from feeding your dog from the table.


HOUSETRAINING AND BEHAVIOR: If your adult dog displays any changes in bathroom habits, let us know. These can be signs of illness in some cases, and if behavioral, are much more easily addressed before the habits become ingrained.


DENTAL CARE: Proper dental care for your dog will be a life-long health benefit. Always use toothpaste made especially for cats and dogs-human toothpaste can make them sick if swallowed! Try to brush your dog’s teeth at least five times weekly. If your dog’s teeth accumulate tartar buildup, the veterinarian may recommend a dental cleaning periodically.




DENTAL CLEANING

Proper dental care is vital in maintaining the health and quality of life for your pet.

Good dental health prevents:

-Bad breath

-Tartar build up

-Periodontal disease which leads to gum loss, bone loss, and tooth loss

-Bacterial infections which can travel to other organs and cause irreparable damage to the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys

-Pain and discomfort


We perform dental cleanings Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday. You can drop your pet off between 7:00 and 8:00 am. For your convenience, you may also drop off the night before at no additional fee. Your pet should have no food after 12:00 a.m. the day of surgery and no water restriction is necessary.


After dropping your pet off, all necessary blood testing will be performed, their IV catheter will be placed, and their fluids started if needed.


Our dental cleaning includes:

-a full physical examination

-hospitalization

-anesthesia

-record of any dental disease or damaged teeth

-both hand and ultrasonic scaling above and below gum line

-high-speed polishing with a fluoride paste

-fluoride treatment

-post-surgical monitoring to ensure that your pet is

clean, dry, and comfortable during recovery

-nail trim and ear cleaning

-instructions for continuing dental care at home


We will also take digital dental x-rays (all cats), fill pockets in the gums with antibiotic (Clindoral), extract diseased teeth, fill in large holes in the jaw bone with Consil to promote healthy bone growth, and apply Oravet if it is necessary for your pet.


Dental care at home includes:

-Brushing your pet’s teeth five to seven times weekly with a veterinary toothpaste

-Applying Oravet at home weekly

-Using diets specifically made for preventing dental disease

-Providing dental chews or treats

-Using oral rinses



DIARRHEA

Diarrhea is not a disease itself, but rather the most common symptom of small and large intestinal problems. There are many causes of diarrhea such as parasites, eating garbage, and stress. Various diagnostic tests such as fecal floats, gram stains, giardia tests, and blood work are used to find the underlying cause. In some cases a cause of diarrhea may not be found but the symptoms may be treated successfully. With severe diarrhea, hospitalization can be necessary to prevent dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.


Recommendations:

Feed your pet a bland diet such as Purina EN, Science diet I/d, boiled chicken/beef and rice, or chicken or beef baby food for the next 3-5 days, then gradually switch back to your pets regular diet over another 3-5 day period.

Please call if the diarrhea does not resolve with the current treatment.

Please call if your pet shows any additional signs of illness, such as vomiting, sudden weight loss, not eating, etc.

Please call with any questions or concerns.



EAR MITES

Ear mites are microscopic parasites that live in the ear canals of cats, ferrets, and occasionally dogs, rabbits, or rats. They are contagious and can infest whole litters of puppies and kittens. If more than one pet is present in the home, all should be treated for ear mites if only one of them is diagnosed with the parasite. Ear mites are not contagious to humans.


Ear infections may develop as a result of injury to the ear canal by the mites, and the associated head shaking and scratching can cause injury to the ears and skin/hair coat around them. The debris from ear mites is dark and crusty, described by many as looking like tobacco or coffee grounds.


Properly diagnosing ear mites and/or ear infection is essential to effective treatment. The veterinarian will take a sample of the debris and look at it under the microscope to see whether your pet has mites, and/or a yeast or bacterial infection. This way, your pet can have the most effective medication(s) for his condition.


Recommendations:

Please call the hospital if:

●Your pet shows problems with balance, disorientation, or a head tilt

●You see dark debris in the ears after treatment and ear cleaning

●If sores or lesions on the ears/skin worsen


Visit HYPERLINK "http://www.veterinarypartner.com" www.veterinarypartner.com and type in ear mites for more information.




ESTRUS IN DOGS

Estrus or “heat” is the time in the female reproductive cycle when dogs ovulate, and are receptive to mating. Dogs generally have their first estrus cycle at 6 to 12 months of age. Some females of the large breeds, however, may not have their first estrus until they are 12 to 24 months of age. The complete cycle takes about 6 months, resulting in 2 estrus periods each year. Individual variation occurs, but a given female’s pattern tends to be repeated regularly. Signs of estrus include swollen nipples, swollen vulva, and bloody vaginal discharge that lasts 7-14 days.


You should consider your pet to be possibly fertile for 21 days: 7 days coming into heat, 7 days in heat, 7 days going out. Though conception is most likely during the middle 7 days, this is not always the case. Confine your pet for the entire 3 weeks-a fenced yard is no guarantee that a male dog cannot reach a female, she should be leash walked or closely supervised during her estrus cycle. The period during which your dog is fertile is near the end of the bleeding, so protection for at least ten days after the bleeding stops is important to prevent unwanted pregnancy. A female in heat can draw male dogs for several miles, which can become a quite a nuisance.


Female dogs that have not been bred may experience several health problems, such as false pregnancy or pyometra (uterine infection). Behaving as if she has a litter, treating foreign objects like toys or socks as puppies, excessive thirst, vaginal discharge after the heat cycle is over, or any other behavior or health changes in the month after estrus warrants a physical examination. If you do not intend to breed your dog, spaying while she is healthy is far safer than the potential complications of pregnancy, birth, or reproductive system disease.


Breeding: Breeding your female dog will require a significant investment in time and money. It is easy to have an idealistic view of the financial and emotional implications of breeding your dog, but it is very hard work. The additional expense of breeding, pregnancy, and birth are nearly impossible to recoup by sales of the litter, particularly if the offspring are to be sold as pets. When purebred pet puppies are available for little or no cost from animal shelters, most owners opt to adopt rather than purchase from breeders for financial and humane reasons. Many pet breeders compensate for this by failing to perform routine screens for hereditary disease and preventive health care before breeding of the dam and sale of the puppies. This reduces their sale price even further.

If you are not able to spend more than a thousand dollars and ten vacation days per litter, a spay surgery is the best option for you and your dog.


Number of Offspring from One Intact Male and One Intact Female Dog:

One Year: 16

Two Years: 128

Three Years: 512

Four Years: 2,048

Five Years: 12,288

Six Years: 67,000




ESTRUS IN CATS: Heat Cycles

Estrus or “heat cycle” is the period of the female reproductive cycle when they ovulate and can mate and become pregnant. Cats normally have their first estrus cycle between 5 and 10 months of age, with the average age around 6 months. Cats are induced ovulators, which means that they do not go into heat on a six-month cycle like dogs, but can go into heat over and over again, stimulated by the presence or even sight of a male cat--sometimes even neutered males or females. Cats also have an estrus cycle 1 to 6 weeks after giving birth, so a female may be nursing one litter while pregnant with another.


There is usually no obvious vaginal discharge or swelling of the genitals during estrus in cats as seen in dogs, behavior changes are the only obvious sign that your cat is in estrus.


A cat in estrus carries her tail to one side, keeps her hindquarters elevated, exhibits “treading” movements of the hind legs, and seems unusually affectionate. She spends a good deal of time rolling on the floor and seems much more restless than usual. The cat’s voice seems more piercing, and she may “call” for 1 to 2 days before she accepts the male. This call is so loud and plaintive that many owners, on hearing it for the first time, presume their cat is in pain.


If you do not plan to breed your cat, it is much safer to spay her when she is healthy than risk the complications of pregnancy, birth, and reproductive system disease. Spaying before the first heat cycle helps protect your cat from accidental pregnancy, breast cancer, and other health problems.


Number of Offspring from One Intact Male and One Intact Female Cat:

One Year: 12 Six Years: 66,088

Two Years: 67 Seven Years: 370,092

Three Years: 376 Eight Years: 2,072,514

Five Years: 11,801 Nine Years: 11,606,077



FLEA ALLERGY

Flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) is inflammation in the skin caused by flea bites. Animals with this condition are allergic to flea saliva and a single flea bite can cause serious problems. Extensive skin damage may result from biting and scratching, causing areas of hair loss and sores. The areas most affected include the lower back, base of the tail, and rear legs.


Flea allergies are most common in late summer and fall in areas with cold winters and warm summers. In warm climates or in heated flea-infested houses, flea allergy may occur throughout the year. Treatment of the environment as well as the pet is important, because fleas spend most of their time in the environment, and not on the dog or cat.


The treatment of flea allergy dermatitis is approached in two ways. First you must eliminate the fleas and second you must treat the allergy and the secondary infections caused by the allergy. Medications that may be used to treat your pet include steroids, antihistamines, antibiotics, and supplements. Corticosteroids may cause an increase in drinking and urination, so make sure your pet has ample fresh water, and more frequent opportunities to relieve themselves outside. This medication also increases appetite, but do not feed your pet more than usual.


Treating fleas:

Treat your pet with Frontline/Revolution monthly year round/March through November.

Treat your house every two weeks for fleas until you are not seeing fleas on your pet.

Treat every pet in your house for fleas.



FEEDING ORPHAN KITTENS

Kittens need a warm, draft-free environment during the early weeks of life. Air temperature in the immediate vicinity of the kittens should be 85 degrees to 90 degrees Fahrenheit for the first week of life, 80 degrees F the next 3 to 4 weeks, and 70 to 75 degrees F at 6 weeks. The higher temperatures during the first few weeks may be maintained with heating pads covered with several layers of towels, light bulbs, or heat lamps; but great care must be taken not to overheat or burn the babies when they are too young to move away from the heat source.


Clean paper or cloth is suitable for bedding. A tall-sided cardboard box makes a safe nest and keeps the kittens inside until they are several weeks old.


Care of Kittens: Kittens must be helped to urinate and defecate after each feeding by gently stroking the genital area with a cotton ball or tissue moistened with warm water. Constant crying or failure to gain weight indicates a problem. Call the doctor if you notice any of these symptoms.


Feeding: Kittens may be fed by bottle, and many people enjoy bottle-feeding kittens. Your veterinarian or clinic staff can instruct you in this method. Newborn kittens should be fed 6 to 8 times daily. The frequency should be gradually reduced to 3 to 4 times daily by 2 to 3 weeks of age.


You can determine how much to feed an orphan kitten by considering its daily caloric requirements. The general total daily caloric requirements for kittens under 4 weeks of age are:


1st and 2nd week 6 calories/ounce of body weight daily

3rd and 4th week 8 calories/ounce of body weight daily


Example: You plan to feed a 1 week-old, 2-ounce kitten 6 times daily. The kitten requires 6 calories/ounce body weight x 2-ounce kitten = 12 calories needed for 1 day. You plan to feed 6 times daily. Therefore, 12 divided by 6 = 2 calories are required each feeding. Your milk substitute contains 1 calorie/ml. Therefore, you should feed 2 ml (cc) each feeding.


The directions on the back of the kitten milk replacer you have purchased can also help you determine how much the kittens should be fed.


Solid foods should be introduced as a thin, pan-fed gruel at about 3 to 4 weeks of age. Over the next 2 weeks, the gruel should be gradually thickened, reaching normal, solid consistency when the kittens are 6 to 8 weeks of age.



FEEDING ORPHAN PUPPIES


Puppies need a clean, warm, draft-free nesting area. The air temperature in their immediate vicinity should be 85 degrees to 90 degrees F during the next 3 to 4 weeks. By the time the pups are 6 weeks of age, temperatures can be reduced to 70 degrees F.


Temperatures can be maintained with heat lamps, light bulbs, or heating pads covered with 3 to 4 layers of towels. Great care must be taken that the pups are not overheated during the first few days of life, when they are unable to move away from the heat source. Clean newspaper is good bedding because it is easily disposed of. As the pups begin to move around, newspaper should be replaced because it is slippery. Cloth bedding offers good footing and is washable.


Feeding: Puppies may be fed by hand, which offers prolonged puppy contact. Your veterinarian or clinic staff can instruct you in this method of feeding. Newborn puppies should be fed 5 to 6 times daily by bottle feeding. At 2 weeks of age, four bottle feedings are usually sufficient.


Puppies must be helped to urinate and defecate by gently stroking the genital area with a tissue or cotton ball moistened with warm water after each feeding. Be persistent until they urinate or defecate. Frequent crying or failure to gain weight indicates a problem. Call the doctor. In general, a pup should double its weight in 8 to 10 days. Overfeeding can be worse than slight underfeeding.


How Much Should You Feed?

You can determine how much to feed an orphan pup by considering its daily caloric requirements. The total daily caloric requirements for pups under 4 weeks of age are:


1st week 3.75 calories/ounce of body weight daily

2nd week 4.50 calories/ounce of body weight daily

3rd week 5.00 calories/ounce of body weight daily

4th week 5.50 calories/ounce of body weight daily


In general, milk substitutes contain around 1 calorie per ml.


Example: You plan to feed a 5-ounce puppy less than 1 week of age 4 times daily. The puppy requires 3.75 calories/ounce body weight x 5-ounce pup = 18.75 calories needed for 1 day. You are feeding 4 times a day. Therefore,18.75/4=4.68 calories given at each feeding. Your milk substitute contains 1 calorie/ml. Therefore, you should feed 4.68 ml (about 5 ml) (1 teaspoon) each feeding.


The label on the puppy milk replacer you have purchased can also be helpful in determining how much milk replacer your puppies should be fed.


Solid foods should be introduced at 3 weeks of age. Pan-feed a thin gruel made by blending good-quality puppy food with puppy milk replacer. Gradually thicken the gruel until no milk substitute is used at about 6 weeks of age. At this time, the pups should be offered good-quality puppy food 3 times daily.



FELINE HEARTWORM DISEASE

Heartworms are circulatory system parasites that inhabit the heart and lungs of infected cats. Cats are not the preferred host of heartworms, but heartworm infection in cats is becoming more common---it now affects cats in all 50 states. Wherever there is a population of dogs that are infected with heartworms, cats are at risk. Cats cannot serve as a source of heartworms, but they can become infected by mosquitoes carrying heartworm larvae from infected dogs. Cats tend to be infected with fewer worms than dogs, but symptoms can be serious--chronic coughing, vomiting, and sudden death.


INDOOR CATS: Exactly as in dogs, heartworms in cats are carried by mosquitoes. Many owners believe that their indoor cats are safe from contracting heartworms, but unfortunately, mosquitoes occasionally enter our homes, and cats occasionally escape. Of cats testing positive for heartworm infection, 55% lived “strictly or mostly indoors”


TREATMENT: Unlike dogs, there is no approved treatment for heartworm infestation in cats. We are only able to treat the symptoms of feline heartworm disease to reduce coughing and inflammation. The cat’s immune system will usually kill the worm after approximately two years.


PREVENTION:

Heartgard® – chewable treat that protects cats from heartworms as well as prevents hookworms and roundworms

Revolution® – spot on that protects cats from heartworms, prevents flea infestations, and treats ear mites, roundworms, and hookworms in cats (We usually recommend Revolution for our feline patients because it prevents the most parasites.)

Advantage Multi® – spot on that protects cats from heartworms and prevents flea infestations

Interceptor® – chewable tablet that protects cats from heartworms as well as prevents roundworms and hookworms




FELINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS  (FeLV)

Feline leukemia virus is very common retroviral infection in cats. It is the most common cause of cat deaths than any other organism in the cat population.


How is Feline Leukemia Virus spread?

-exchange of body fluids--fighting, bites, or close contact, such as mating, grooming or sharing of food or water sources.

-passing infected blood to non-infected cats

-kittens may become infected while in the womb, or through nursing.


What happens to cats that are exposed?

Not all exposed cats become permanently infected. Of cats that are exposed:

30% of exposed cats eliminate the virus and become immune

40% of exposed cats carry the virus in their bodies in a dormant state, and the virus may become active in these cats during times of stress or in response to certain medications. These cats can infect other cats.

30% of exposed cats become infected with Feline Leukemia

Of the cats that become infected, about half die within 6 months of diagnosis and 85% do not survive past three years. Some cats will live longer, but tend to be susceptible to more medical problems than an uninfected cat.

What are the symptoms of FeLV?

There is no single symptom of feline leukemia infection. Most cats are initially presented for general signs of illness such as weight loss, decreased appetite or lethargy. Feline leukemia can cause tumors, increased susceptibility to infections, and a variety of other chronic illnesses.


How do I prevent my cat from contracting FeLV?

The primary means of prevention is to limit exposure to feline leukemia virus by:

-Keeping cats indoors only

-Preventing exposure to any new cat until that cat’s feline leukemia status is known

-Vaccinate cats that are at risk and have been tested negative


Testing for feline leukemia is critical to controlling and preventing the disease. Leukemia vaccination and regular testing is recommended for cats where total isolation cannot be maintained- indoor/outdoor cats, cats that live in a household where cats come and go (such as foster homes), cats who are boarded, and cats that are “escape artists”.


It is important to note that a cat that is recently infected with FeLV may not have a positive test for weeks after infection. These cats should be tested 90 days after the first test.


IMPORTANT FACTS:

-THERE IS NO CURE FOR FELINE LEUKEMIA.

-Infected cats are at high risk for developing cancer or other life-threatening disease.

-Outdoor cats are at high risk for developing feline leukemia infection. Indoor cats are at low risk.

-Retroviruses are unstable, liver for only minutes outside the cat’s body, and are easily killed by most disinfectant cleaners.



FELINE UPPER RESPIRATORY DISEASE

The most common signs of respiratory disease are:

- Sneezing

- Coughing

- Discharge from the eyes, nose, or mouth

- Difficult breathing, gagging

- Lack of appetite


Feline upper respiratory disease is not contagious to humans but it is highly infectious to other cats. Most cats contract this disease through exposure to other cats. Infected cats typically are cats that go outside, cats that come from shelters, or cats housed with lots of other cats. Kittens are particularly susceptible due to their immature immune systems and usually show the most symptoms.

Organisms that can cause Feline Upper Respiratory Disease:

- Herpes virus (Rhinotracheitis virus)

- Calicivirus

- Chlamydia

- Mycoplasma

- Various Bacteria

* 90% of all Feline Upper Respiratory Disease is caused by Herpes Virus and Calicivirus.


Most infections last about 7-10 days while other infections may be present for weeks or months. Herpes virus infections are permanent and recurring especially in times of stress such as surgery, boarding, and introductions to new cats and households. Cats with herpes virus are infectious to other cats for a few weeks after a stressful event. Cats infected with Calicivirus may have the virus for their entire lives and shed virus continuously, not just when they are stressed.


Diagnosis:

Diagnosis is based on symptoms. It is not necessary or cost-effective to test for the organism causing the symptoms.


Treatment:

Most respiratory infections can be treated at home, but severely ill cats may require hospitalization, laboratory tests, and radiographs (x-rays) to monitor their response to treatment. Treatment may include:

-antibiotics

-eye ointments

-nasal decongestants (Little Noses Decongestant Drops)

-lysine supplementation

-humidifiers


Prevention:

There are several things that you can do to prevent Feline Upper Respiratory Disease such as:

-Vaccinate your cats.

-Keep new cats to your house hold away from your other cats for at least 14 days.

-Use bleach to wash bedding and surfaces to prevent spread from an infected cat to non-infected cats.


Recommendations:

Some cats may not need medications for treatment but if yours does please give all medications as directed.


Call if your cat does not eat or drink, is more lethargic, or is having trouble breathing.


Remove all secretions from the eyes, nose, and mouth several times each day with a moistened cloth, facial tissue, or cotton balls. Wash your hands well after handling or treating infected cats.


Place your cat in the bathroom when you take a shower and use a humidifier in the room your cat is staying in. Increasing the moisture in the air will help with your cat’s congestion.


Use Little Noses Decongestant Drops which can be purchased at a pharmacy. These drops can also help relieve your cat’s congestion. Place one drop in each nostril for 3 days, and then stop for 3 days. Repeat this regimen 2 more times and then stop completely.


Please call with any questions or concerns.




FLEA PREVENTION AND CONTROL

Controlling and preventing flea infestations on your pet and in your house and yard are important for your pet’s health and comfort, as well as that of your family. Fleas carry disease as well as parasites such as tapeworms. Fleas reproduce rapidly in the environment, so flea infestations quickly take hold on your pet as well as in your home. A single female flea can lay up to 100 eggs a day!


Treat your house for fleas, repeating treatment every14 days until no fleas are seen on your pet for one month. We recommend Knockout House Treatment Spray. .


Frontline TopSpot is a safe and effective topical flea and tick treatment for cats and dogs over 8 weeks of age. It comes in small vials that are applied between the shoulder blades once a month


 Revolution is also a topical flea preventative but also has the ability to eliminate intestinal parasites in cats, ear mites in cats, and prevents heartworm disease in both cats and dogs.


 Capstar is an oral flea preventative that starts killing fleas within 30 minutes. You will literally see the fleas fall off the pet. It will kill the fleas on your pet for 24 hours.



FELINE IDIOPATHIC CYSTITIS 

Feline Idiopathic Cystitis (FIC) is a term that describes a group of symptoms including bloody urine, straining to urinate (frequently mistaken for constipation), urinating in unusual places, frequent urination of small amounts of urine, licking the genitalia, and blockage of the urethra. The word “idiopathic” means that a cause of the symptoms has not been identified. Despite intense study, no single cause for FIC has been determined. However, there is a proven link between environmental stress and FIC symptoms.


Treatment:

FIC symptoms indicate that your cat should be seen immediately by a veterinarian, since it is impossible for an owner to know for certain whether the urethra is blocked. If your cat is able to urinate they will usually be treated at home. If your cat can not urinate it is an emergency and almost all cats who are blocked require hospitalization. Treatment for FIC revolves around treating the current episode and preventing future ones. This treatment may include:

Hospitalization, urinary catheterization, and fluid therapy if your cat is blocked.

Urinalysis

CBC/profile

Diet change to control crystal formation

Antibiotics if a urinary tract infection (UTI) is identified

Pain medication

Anti-spasmodics and tranquilizers (acepromazine and or phenoxybenzamine)

Anti-inflammatories/steroids to reduce inflammation in the bladder and urethra

Subcutaneous fluids

Anti-anxiety medications (amitriptyline, clomipramine, and fluoxetine)

Glucosamine chondroitin or Adequan injections to promote bladder wall health

Canned food and increased water consumption

Environmental enrichment/Relieving stress


While most cats respond to prompt treatment, some male cats with recurring disease require surgical enlargement of the urinary tract opening (perineal urethrostomy) to prevent continual reblocking.


Recommendations:

Give all medication as directed. If you are having trouble giving the medications please give us a call.


Make sure that your cat is urinating, even a small amount, every time they use the litter box. If they are not urinating, please call the hospital immediately or go to an emergency facility if we are not here. You may need to confine your cat to a room in order to monitor them more closely.


Please call if your cat does not improve, continues to urinate frequently, continues to have blood in the urine after one week, or there is more blood in the urine instead of less. Also call if your cat will not eat, is vomiting, or seems lethargic.


Please schedule a medical progress exam in ____ days. At this time we will reevaluate your cat and perform a urinalysis.


Please go to HYPERLINK "http://www.veterinarypartner.com" www.veterinarypartner.com for more information on FIC.


Please go to vet.osu.edu/vmc/indoor-cat-initiative for more information on environmental enrichment and relieving stress in your cat.



FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS

Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is strikingly similar to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS, though FIV is not contagious to humans. On average cats can live for about 5 years after becoming infected with FIV. Affected cats may appear healthy but their immune system slowly deteriorates. Eventually, the deterioration of the immune system predisposes infected cats to a variety of disorders. Chronic mouth infections, respiratory infection, intestinal disease, fungal disease, eye diseases, diseases of the nervous system, cancers, and leukemia are common.


How is FIV spread?

This virus is most commonly spread through bite wounds. It can also be sexually transmitted and through improperly screened blood transfusions. Mother cats can spread the disease to her kittens but only in the initial stages of her infection. FIV infection is most common in male free-roaming cats. It is unlikely that casual contact such as sharing food bowls and snuggling will transmit the virus. This means that an FIV positive cat can live with other cats as long as the FIV positive cat is not going to fight with the other cats.


How is FIV diagnosed?

FIV is diagnosed first through a screen test at the veterinary hospital and then is confirmed through another blood test called a Western Blot at an outside laboratory. If both tests are positive, the cat is considered to have FIV.


Caring for your FIV-Positive Cat

Cats can live long period of time without symptoms before feline AIDS occurs. However there is no cure for FIV/feline AIDS. Our goal as veterinarians and as cat owners is to extend this asymptomatic period out as long as possible. Here are some steps you can take to prevent illness, injury, and the spread of disease in your cat.


1. Keep your cat indoors only

* protects your cat from becoming injured or sick due to other animals they encounter

* prevents the spread of FIV in your community

2. Have your cat examined regularly by a veterinarian

*Cats infected with FIV should be seen by a veterinarian twice yearly

*Monitoring blood work and urine tests should be performed on one of these visits

3. Keep your cat’s vaccinations up to date

*This helps protect your cat from other common cat diseases

4. Do not feed your cat raw foods. Feed a high quality commercially prepared cat food.

*Uncooked meats especially can include parasites and bacteria that your cat’s immune system

will not be able to handle properly

5. Use parasite control

*This will protect your cat from fleas, worms, and mites that you or your other pets could bring into your home

6. Consider using antioxidants and immune stimulating agents

*These can help bolster the FIV cat’s weakened immune system

7. FIV positive cats should not live with immune-suppressed owners

*An immune-suppressed owner can increase an immune-suppressed cat’s exposure to

infectious agents and vice versa


Other Recommendations:

Please go to veterinarypartner.com or the American Association of Feline Practitioners web site for more information.

Please schedule a recheck appointment.




HOOKWORMS 

Hookworms are common intestinal parasites of dogs, cats, and other animals. The adult worms live in the small intestine, and eggs pass out of the body with the stool. Hookworms are diagnosed by a microscopic test of the feces for hookworm ova (eggs).


Animals become infected with hookworms by ingesting the eggs, penetration of the skin or foot pads by larvae, or by transmission of larvae from the mother to the fetus(es) while still in the uterus or by nursing. The life cycle of the hookworm is 15-24 days long, so it may take up to 24 days after initial exposure for the stool to test positive for ova.

Hookworms are one of the most serious intestinal parasites, as they feed on the blood of their host animal and can cause severe anemia. In young, weak, or malnourished animals, hookworms can cause serious illness and even death. Animals with hookworms frequently have weight loss, diarrhea, and tarry or bloody stools.


Human Health Significance

Hookworm larvae can penetrate human skin and cause a skin disorder known as cutaneous larval migrans. This infection is not common, but anyone who develops a skin rash after being in contact with a pet with hookworms should consult a physician.


Important Points in Treatment

1. Treatment consists of eliminating the worms and correcting any anemia and malnutrition. Hospital treatment may be required in severe infections.

2. Sanitation: Good sanitation is essential. Promptly remove all stools from the area where your pet is confined.

3. Control Measures: Regular microscopic stool examinations are the best means of early detection of hookworm problems. Your pet's stool should be checked every year, and more often during puppyhood or after parasitic infections. We should re-check a stool sample.

4. In addition, heartworm preventive medications that also prevent hookworms and roundworm offer an additional measure of safety from intestinal parasites.

5. Go to veterinarypartner.com for more information on hookworms.




KIDNEY DISEASE OR KIDNEY FAILURE 

Kidney Disease or Failure means that the kidneys are not properly eliminating waste products and maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance.  This disease can be acute (occurs suddenly) or chronic (has been going on for months).  Unfortunately, dogs and cats do not show symptoms of kidney disease until about three fourths of the kidney tissue are damaged.   Kidney damage may not be reversible.   


Common symptoms of kidney disease may include:

Depression/lethargy

Lack of appetite

Vomiting/Diarrhea

Increased water consumption, and increased urine output 


Veterinarians diagnose kidney disease via:

Blood work

Urinalysis

Ultrasound and/or x-rays


Treatment: 

Not all patients with Kidney disease need to be hospitalized because they are still feeling well despite their test abnormalities.  Some patients will have abnormalities on their test results but will also feel sick.  These patients are the ones that typically need to be hospitalized and have uremia – the buildup of toxins leading to uremic poisoning.   Supportive care in the hospital will include intravenous fluids, medication, and a prescription diet.


Recommendations:

  • Please call the hospital if your pet will not eat, is depressed or lethargic, starts drinking more or urinating more frequently, or is losing weight.
  • For more information on kidney disease or failure please go to www.veterinarypartner.com and type in kidney failure: where to begin.





OTITIS or EAR INFECTION

Otitis externa is an infection and/or inflammation of the ear canal, extending down towards the ear drum. The ear canal is a perfect environment for the growth of bacteria and yeast because it is warm and moist, so ear infections are a common problem.


Causes of ear infections:

Water in the ear after bathing or swimming

Floppy ears

Allergies

Genetics


Symptoms of ear infections include:

Head shaking, pawing, or scratching at the ears

Debris or drainage in the ear

Foul odor from the ears


Complications from CHRONIC ear infections include:

Damage to the ear canal or eardrum

Inner ear infections that disrupt equilibrium and vision

Cartilage damage to the ear itself

Surgical removal of the ear canal


Test and procedures used to diagnose ear infections:

Physical examinations

Ear cytologies (to determine if the ear is infected with yeast, bacteria, and/or ear mites)

Culture and Sensitivity of the bacteria in the ear


Recommendations:

Apply ear medications to ears as directed. Do not discontinue medication after symptoms subside. If you have difficulty medicating the ears, please call the hospital.


Clean the ear ______ time(s) weekly/daily, before applying medication.


Schedule a medical progress exam in _____ days. This is extremely important to make sure your pet's ear infection has completely healed.


How to Clean Ears

Assemble everything you'll need to clean and medicate the ears: Cleaning solution, tissues or a soft cloth, and ear medication. Cleaning the ears can be slightly messy, so choose an appropriate location.

 Grasp the ear by the ear flap (pinna), and fill the ear canal with ear cleaner. Massage the ear. It is normal for the ear cleaning solution to bring up chunks of debris, and/or slosh out of the ear slightly.

 Clean excess solution from ears with tissues or soft cloth. Do not use cotton swabs; the ear canal in dogs and cats is L-shaped, and this can push debris further into the ear canal.

 Repeat with other ear. Medicate after cleaning.

Reward your pet with praise and food treats. Some pets tolerate ear cleaning much better with a distraction, such as a helper feeding the pet small, very tasty treats.




PYOMETRA

Pyometra is a severe bacterial infection and accumulation of pus in the uterus. Although it often occurs in middle-aged or older females that have never had puppies, younger dogs are sometimes affected. The condition most commonly develops two to four weeks after a heat or estrus cycle. The disease may develop very slowly over several weeks. This condition is life-threatening, and most dogs and cats will die without prompt treatment.


Signs of pyometra include:

Loss of appetite

Excessive thirst

Depression

Vomiting

Puss like discharge from the vulva


Diagnosis:

Pyometra can be diagnosed in most cases using x-rays but ultrasounding the abdomen is needed in some cases. Other diagnostic tests your veterinarian will use to see how the pyometra is affected your pet’s organ systems include blood work and urine tests.


Treatment:

The treatment for this condition is surgical removal of the infected uterus and ovaries. Unfortunately, since the health of pyometra patients is compromised, surgery is more risky. Because of this, supportive care is extremely important to stabilize the patient before surgery. This will include an intravenous catheter and fluids and antibiotics. Most patients will continue to take oral antibiotics at home.


The best treatment for this condition is prevention--spaying female dogs and cats while they are young and healthy places them at a much lower risk for both anesthesia and surgical complications. Females used for breeding should be spayed three to four months after their last litter.




ROUNDWORMS

Roundworms are the most common intestinal parasite of dogs and cats. Their eggs are passed in the feces of affected animals, and the stool as well as the grass and soil surrounding it can become contaminated with eggs. When other animals come into contact with contaminated feces, soil, or grass, they ingest the ova, which develop into larvae and travel through the body to the intestines, where they develop into adult worms. Animals that hunt can also contract roundworms from ingesting the entrails of infested prey.


Many puppies and kittens are born with roundworms, so we routinely deworm puppies and kittens, as well as checking the stool microscopically for parasites.


Human Health Significance:

Roundworms are contagious to humans, but this is easily prevented with good hygiene. Wash hands after handling pets or stool, and recheck the stool sample as directed to make sure that all parasites have been removed.

Recommendations:

1. Recheck stool sample in 21 days.

2. Pick up stool immediately after your pet defecates. Eggs can remain infective in soil for years, so contaminated ground becomes a source of re-infection.

3. After deworming, your pet may pass worms in the stool-this is normal. If you do not see worms passed in the stool, it does not mean that the dewormer was not effective.

4. Visit veterinarypartner.com for more information about roundworms.



SEIZURES

Seizures are classified into three categories:

Generalized (Grand Mal) Seizures – These are the most common type of seizures seen in dogs and cats. During this type of seizure the animal will lose consciousness, become stiff or cycle through stiffness and contraction cycles (convulsing), and may urinate or defecate.

Partial Seizures – These types of seizures involve a specific region of the body, for example, just the head or a leg. The portion of the body affected may become stiff or start convulsing apart from the rest of the body but can lead to a generalized seizure.

Psychomotor Seizures – These types of seizures are characterized by behaviors that are involuntary such as circling, howling, and “fly snapping” but also may become generalized.


Seizures have three phases:

Pre-Ictal or Aura Phase – This phase is difficult to identify and may just present as the animal becoming more clingy to the owner. It occurs prior to the actual seizure.

Ictal Phase – This phase is the actual seizure episode itself.

Post-Ictal Phase – This is the phase after the seizure where the animal’s brain is “resetting”. It is usually characterized by disorientation, sometimes blindness, and ataxia (walking like they are drunk). This phase may last only a few minutes to several hours.


Most Common Causes of Seizures (in dogs):

Zero to one year old – Infections, brain malformations (hydrocephalus), low blood sugar, and other congenital diseases are usually the cause of seizures.


1 to 5 years – Usually no cause is found and the animal is diagnosed with epilepsy, which simply means seizure disorder.


5 plus years – Tumors pressing on the brain are usually diagnosed in animals in this age group.


*Other causes of seizures in animals include trauma, toxins produced by the body, external poisons, and hypothyroidism.


*Epilepsy is a common diagnosis in dogs but much less common in cats.


Diagnosis:

There are many test used to diagnose the cause of seizures but if your animal is between the ages of 1 and 5 the history of the seizure, a physical exam of the animal, and blood work to check for diseases that could cause seizures may be all that is needed to diagnose your pet. Other tests that may be performed or recommended include:

X-rays

CT scan

MRI

CSF tap

Ultrasound

Thyroid testing


Treatment:

The treatment of the seizures is dependent on the cause but there are some common medications used to control seizures. The following medications are used commonly in the treatment of epilepsy.


Phenobarbital – This continues to be the first drug of choice for controlling epileptic seizures. It is important to realize that phenobarbital does not cure epilepsy. It is used to control seizure activity by decreasing the frequency, duration, and severity of the seizures. It takes 1 to 2 weeks for phenobarbital to build up in the blood stream for it to suppress seizure activity. During this period your pet may be drowsy or stuporous, be excessively thirsty, and have an increased appetite. The drowsiness is usually temporary whereas the excessive thirst and increased appetite may remain for as long as the animal is on phenobarbital.


After 2 weeks, an animal on phenobarbital will have its blood tested to determine if they are taking the correct dosage of phenobarbital. This is called a phenobarbital level. Once it has been determined that an animal’s seizures are being controlled and the phenobarbital level is in the therapeutic range, the phenobarbital level will be tested at least once a year. Phenobarbital can also cause liver problems therefore a cbc/profile will also be tested at least once yearly.


Potassium Bromide – If phenobarbital alone can not control an animal’s seizures or if the animal can not take phenobarbital, potassium bromide can be used to help control the seizures. Many of the same side effects seen using phenobarbital are also seen while an animal is on potassium bromide. If both drugs are being used together the side effects can be compounded. Unlike phenobarbital, it can take months for Potassium bromide to reach therapeutic levels. Periodic blood tests are used to determine if an animal is in the therapeutic range for potassium bromide. A cbc/profile will also be performed at least once a year.


There are other medications that can be used for the control of seizures and may be need in some animals. Some of these medications include levetiractetam (Keppra®), gabapentin (Neurontin®), clorasepate (Tranxene®), and felbamate (Felbatol®).



TAPEWORMS

Tapeworms are intestinal worms carried by fleas or other animals like rodents and rabbits.   Segments of the tapeworm are passed in the animal’s stool, leaving the head still attached to the animal’s intestinal lining, where it produces more segments.  The tapeworm segments contain tapeworm eggs.  


Tapeworm infection usually does not cause noticeable illness in your pet, but may produce digestive upsets, poor appetite, poor hair coat and skin, weight loss, and vague signs of abdominal discomfort.

Tapeworm infection is diagnosed by finding the segments in your pet’s feces, in its bed, or clinging to the hair around the anus.  When first passed, segments are yellowish to white and about 1/4" long, and may expand and contract.  When dry, the segments resemble grains of rice. 

 

Tapeworms are not passed directly from pet to pet but require an intermediate host in which to develop.  Common intermediate hosts are fleas and small animals, such as mice, rats, and rabbits.    Dogs and cats contract tapeworms from eating fleas or by ingesting the entrails of affected prey. 


Recommendations:

Protect your pet from fleas by using an affective flea prevention March through November every year.

If your pet is a hunter deworm them with, profender or proziquantal (Droncit/Drontal) every three months.

Go to veterinarypartner.com for more information on tapeworms.

If you have any questions, please feel free to contact our office @ 614-871-1111  

Contact Information

Concord Chapel Animal Hospital

Phone: 614-871-1111

Email: [email protected]

Hospital Hours

Monday                 8:00AM - 9:00PM

Tuesday                8:00AM - 7:00PM

Wednesday           8:00AM - 5:00PM

Thursday               8:00AM - 7:00PM

Friday                    7:30AM - 7:30PM

Saturday               8:00AM - 3:00PM

Closed on Sunday 



Address

  • 2517 London Groveport Rd., Grove City, Ohio 43123